Direct application of liquid nitrogen cooling
By：adminauthor：admin Date:2020-03-19 15:00 View：
Nitrogen is the most abundant component in the atmosphere, and liquid nitrogen is a vast source of by-products for the oxygen industry. Liquid nitrogen is used as a cutting fluid. After application, it is directly evaporated into a gas and returned to the atmosphere without any pollutants. From a environmental perspective, it is a good alternative to cutting fluids.
Because low-carbon steel exhibits good low-temperature brittleness, low-temperature cutting can achieve ideal processing results. For high-carbon steel and bearing steel, the application of liquid nitrogen cooling can suppress the temperature rise in the cutting zone and the speed of tool wear. The application of low-temperature cooling can improve the hardness of the tool and the resistance of the tool to silicon abrasive wear. When processing titanium alloys, low-temperature cooling of the tool and the workpiece can effectively reduce the cutting temperature and reduce the chemical affinity between titanium and the tool material. In short, good processing results were obtained.
In general, diamond tools cannot be used for machining ferrous metals due to the extreme wear of the tools. A scholar in the United States uses a liquid nitrogen cooling processing system to turn diamond tools for stainless steel. The low temperature suppresses the diffusion and graphitization of carbon atoms, greatly reduces tool wear, and achieves excellent processing quality. Its surface roughness reaches Ra25nm.
During the grinding process, due to the high temperature in the grinding zone, thermal damage to the workpiece surface is often caused, such as burns, micro-cracks, etc. In order to effectively solve these problems, S. Paul of Indian Institute of Technology has studied five common steels for liquid nitrogen ultra-low temperature grinding. The results show that the correct and reasonable use of liquid nitrogen cooling can effectively control the temperature of the grinding zone and keep the grinding temperature. Under the phase transition temperature of the material, no grinding burn occurs; and this effect is more significant under the condition that the plasticity of the material increases and the feed rate is large.
For liquid metal cooling cutting of non-metallic materials and composite materials, extensive research has also been carried out abroad. For example, KFRP (Kevlararamind fiber reinforced plastics), a high-strength / weight-ratio, fatigue-resistant composite material, is very difficult to process with traditional cutting methods, which limits the use of this material. New Zealand scholars perform ultra-low temperature cooling processing and use liquid nitrogen uninterrupted cooling (0.4 ~ 0.5l / min), which greatly improves the machinability of this material. Not only has it achieved satisfactory surface quality, it is still very large. The tool life is extended to a certain extent. Low-temperature cutting of thermosetting plastics, synthetic resins, graphite, rubber, and fiberglass also shows good cutting performance.
It can be seen that under the situation that the relevant regulations are becoming stricter and the use and disposal costs of cutting fluids are increasing, liquid nitrogen is indeed a more effective and economical alternative to cutting fluids in future cutting processes.
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